Ear, Nose, & Throat - Surgeries & Procedures
Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy
Are procedures that may be done for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children and adults and rarely for snoring in adults. The procedures remove the small glands (lymphatic tissue) located at the back of the mouth (tonsils) and in the top of the throat behind the nose (adenoids).
The nasal septum is the structure between the nostrils that separates the nasal passages. It supports the nose and directs airflow. The septum is made up of thin bone in the back and cartilage in the front. A deviated septum occurs when the cartilage or bone is not straight. A crooked septum can make breathing difficult. The condition also can lead to snoring and sleep apnea.
Surgery to straighten the septum is called septoplasty, submucous resection of the septum, or septal reconstruction. The surgery may be done along with other procedures to treat chronic sinusitis, inflammation, bleeding, or to correct sleep apnea. Septoplasty also may be done to allow access into the nose to remove nasal polyps.
Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
Surgical instruments are inserted alongside the endoscope. This allows the doctor to remove small amounts of bone or other material blocking the sinus openings and remove growths (polyps) of the mucous membrane. In some cases a laser is used to burn away tissue blocking the sinus opening. A small rotating burr that scrapes away tissue may also be used.
A procedure used to remove excess tissue in the throat, which widens the airway. This sometimes can allow air to move through the throat more easily when you breathe, decreasing snoring.
Can be used to treat thyroid nodules or, rarely, hyperthyroidism. In this procedure, part or all of the thyroid gland is removed. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the front of the neck just above the collarbones.
Myringotomy Tube Placement
Surgery for middle ear infections (otitis media) often means placing a drainage tube into the eardrum of one or both ears. It's one of the most common childhood operations. While the child is under general anesthesia, the surgeon cuts a small hole in the eardrum and inserts a small plastic tube in the opening (myringotomy or tympanostomy with tube placement). Often, tubes are put in both ears.
This new medical technique involves injecting a scarring agent known as Sotradecol -- commonly used to treat varicose veins -- into the soft palate at the back of the roof of the mouth. The agent stiffens the soft palate.
Direct Laryngoscopy & Biopsy
Direct laryngoscopy uses a fiber-optic scope that allows the doctor to see deeper into the throat than during indirect laryngoscopy. The laryngoscope is either flexible or rigid. Fiber-optic scopes provide better views and are better tolerated than older, rigid scopes. Rigid scopes are still used in surgery.
*Surgical overview descriptions based on WebMD information